Everything You Need to Know About 5G





5th-Generation Wireless Systems (abbreviated 5G) is the marketing term for technologies that satisfy ITU IMT-2020 requirements and 3GPP Release 15. Key features of 5G include high throughput, low latency, high mobility and high connection density. 5G will use additional spectrum in the existing LTE frequency range (600 MHz to 6 GHz) and new Millimeter wave bands (24-86 GHz), which can support data rates of up to 20 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). 5G infrastructure will use Massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) to significantly increase network capacity.






ITU has divided 5G network services into three categories: enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) or handsets, Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC), which includes industrial applications and autonomous vehicles, and Massive Machine Type Communications (MMTC) or sensors. Initial 5G deployments will focus on eMBB and fixed wireless, which makes use of many of the same capabilities as eMBB.






Capabilities


5G systems in line with IMT-2020 specifications, are expected to provide enhanced device- and network-level capabilities, tightly coupled with intended applications. The following eight parameters are key capabilities for IMT-2020 5G:

Capability
Description
5G Target
Usage Scenario
Peak data rate
Maximum achievable data rate
20 Gbit/s
eMBB
User experienced data rate
Achievable data rate across coverage area
100 Mbit/s
eMBB
Latency
Radio network contribution to packet travel time
1 ms
URLLC
Mobility
Maximum speed for handoff and QoS requirements
500 km/h
eMBB/URLLC
Connection density
Total number of devices per unit area
106/km2
MMTC
Energy efficiency
Data sent/received per unit energy consumption (by device or network)
Equal to 4G
eMBB
Spectrum efficiency
Throughput per wireless bandwidth and per network cell
3-4x 4G
eMBB
Area traffic capacity
Total traffic across coverage area
10 (Mbit/s)/m2
eMBB




The proposed 5G applications


IEEE suggested the future key services for the next generation which would be enabled by the 5G mobile network. the examples are smart grid, smart medicine with connected cars, moving robots, and sensors creating the environment of Internet of Things.


Deployment


Development of 5G is being led by companies such as Intel and Qualcomm for modem technology and Nokia, Huawei, Ericsson, ZTE, and Samsung for infrastructure.

Worldwide commercial launch is expected in 2020, and the first commercial network launch was by Qatar operator Ooredoo in May 2018. Numerous operators have demonstrated 5G as well, including Korea Telecom for the 2018 Winter Olympics. In the United States, the four major carriers have all announced deployments: AT&T's millimeter wave commercial deployments in 2018, Verizon's 5G fixed wireless launches in four U.S. cities and millimeter-wave deployments, Sprint's launch in the 2.5 GHz band, and T-Mobile's 600 MHz 5G launch in 30 cities. Vodafone performed the first UK trials in April 2018 using mid-band spectrum, and China Telecom's initial 5G buildout in 2018 will use mid-band spectrum as well.

Beyond mobile operator networks, 5G is also expected to be widely utilized for private networks with applications in industrial IoT, enterprise networking, and critical communications.


Technology


There are multiple new technologies that will be incorporated into 5G to deliver IMT-2020 capabilities, such as new radio specifications that include millimeter wave transmission, "massive" MIMO, beamforming, edge computing, small cells, convergence, network virtualization and next-generation traffic protocols. Some of these technologies have already been incorporated into 4G networks.


New Radio


The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New Radio (NR), and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1 (<6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave), each with different capabilities.

Frequency Range 1 (<6 GHz)

The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz. Note that beginning with Release 10, LTE supports 100 MHz carrier aggregation (five x 20 MHz channels.) Both FR1 and LTE support a maximum modulation format of 256-QAM, meaning 5G does not achieve significant throughput improvements relative to LTE in the sub-6 GHz bands without its own carrier aggregation.


Frequency Range 2 (24-86 GHz)

The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is 400 MHz, with two channel aggregation supported in 3GPP Release 15. The maximum phy rate potentially supported by this configuration is approximately 40 Gbit/s.5G Networks


"Massive" MIMO


The term “massive MIMO” was first coined by Nokia Bell Labs researcher Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in 2010. and has been launched to a limited extent in 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan. Massive MIMO increases sector throughput and capacity density using large numbers of Antenna and Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each antenna is individually-controlled and may embed radio transceiver components. Nokia claims 5x capacity increase for a 64-Tx/64-Rx antenna system.


Edge Computing

Edge computing is a method of optimizing cloud computing systems "by taking the control of computing applications, data, and services away from some central nodes (the "core area"). In a 5G network it would promote faster speeds and low latency data transfer on the edge devices.


Small Cell

The technology of small cell was already utilised to 3G and 4G mobile radio technology. However, small cell in 5G is now the crucial part of achieving several gigabits per second Bandwidth and low latency. It is now indispensable to use the small cell when you deploy high bandwidth 5G fixed wireless service because of characteries of the new 5G mobile band which is Millimeter wave frequencies(24-86GHz).


Beamforming

It is one of the primary technology for 5G networks; it will transmit data through targeted beams and advanced signal processing that could speed up data rates and boost bandwidth using massive MIMO antennas, it is a technique that sends the radio signals intensively to the places where many data are actually needed.


Radio Convergence

One perceived benefit of the transition to 5G is the convergence of multiple networking functions to achieve cost, power and complexity reductions. LTE has targeted convergence with Wi-Fi via various efforts, such as License Assisted Access (LAA) and LTE-WLAN Aggregation (LWA), but the differing capabilities of cellular and Wi-Fi have limited the scope of convergence. However, significant improvement in cellular performance specifications in 5G, combined with migration from Distributed Radio Access Network (D-RAN) to Cloud- or Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) and rollout of cellular small cells can potentially narrow the gap between Wi-Fi and cellular networks in dense and indoor deployments. Radio convergence could result in sharing ranging from aggregation of cellular and Wi-Fi channels to the use of a single silicon device for multiple radio access technologies.






Thanks to Wikipedia: 5G


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